Rorate Caeli

And the 2014 Dhimmi Award goes to...

...Monsignore Cesare Nosiglia, the Archbishop of Turin, Italy, for the most adulatory Ramadan or Eid-al-Fitr greeting card or letter ever published south of the Alps. Or north of them.

When sending greetings to members of another faith, there is courtesy and politeness, when circumstances absolutely demand the greeting. Then there is flattery. And then there is just plain sycophancy.

Islam is not a religion of "nice". Islam is a religion of Law and Power. Law, Polity, Faith are inseparable, and the faithful Muslim is (and in this he should be praised for acting upon what he wrongly believes) always seeking the accomplishment of the three realities in one, whenever circumstances allow them.

The following displaced Christian woman, interviewed by Assyrian-owned Ishtar TV this week shows this well. Remember that her family has been in what is now Northern Iraq forever, that there were Christians in her city of Mosul (Nineveh) certainly days or weeks after Pentecost, Jewish or Proselyte pilgrims who had been in Jerusalem for the Feast of Shavuot and, probably by way of Damascus, returned to their land filled with the Spirit and the Good News of the Resurrected Messiah. Then, six centuries later came the invading Arab hordes and, with time and pressure, and new populations, a Christian population became a Muslim-majority population.

Now, one can only imagine how many millions of times the lady and her ancestors had greetings of Muslim feasts for their neighbors. But, with the most brutal regime for centuries in town, most Muslims (not all, of course, but almost all, other than one or other heroic Muslim), sensing the times, turned on their Christian neighbors -- that is how centuries of polite greetings from Christians were returned: "Ordinary Muslim citizens are treating us like this in Mosul." Please, take a look -- she knows the Koran well, but that was not enough to save her family from expulsion and expropriation:

The members of the religion of Mohammed can sense more than any other adherent of any faith the weakness in others. It is not due to any inherent evil in them as human beings (they are as noble and precious and as unworthy of the redemption bought by the Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ as any human being); it is, as we said above, the way the structure Polity-Law-Creed that is their faith functions. When they sense they can advance, they will. Therefore, a polite greeting can be interpreted as mere courtesy. But bishops in particular, who are the leaders of the Catholic faithful and who are, for this reason, usually treated as the political leaders of Christian minorities in Muslim lands (because that is the way Muslims view matters), must be careful not to send messages of lavish adulation, which are rightly interpreted by most Muslims as submission  -- which is, after all, the very name of Islam.

So, yes, by all means, dear Lord Bishops, if you wish to be courteous, limit yourselves to greeting cards with a couple of words. More than that, and, even if you are not aware of it, you are calling for much, much more than you can handle.


Published in Archdiocesan weekly “La Voce del Popolo” (The Voice of the People), edition of the upcoming Sunday, July 27, 2014, the letter of greetings from the Archbishop addressed to the Muslims resident in the territory of the diocese of Turin, on the occasion of the celebrations for the conclusion of the Ramadan fast at the end of July. The entire text is attached, as consigned in original copy to the Islamic cultural centers of Turin (with mosques attached) by the parish priests of the respective territorial areas.

Dear Muslim faithful

Today the month of fasting, characterized by your intense personal effort of great dedication to God and renewal of the faith concludes with the feast of “id ad fitr”

We hope, above all, that your obedience to the will of God is strengthened and that you have been filled with every virtue, as your famous medieval theologian affirms, Adu Hamid al-Ghazli: “Clothe yourselves again with the conduct of God[…]. The maximum perfection, for the believer, consists in getting closer to his Lord, making his own those attributes that merit every praise: science, justice, piety, goodness, benignity, beneficence, mercy, good counsel, encouragement in the good and protection from evil.”

100 years ago, the Dual Monarchy delivered its ultimatum to Serbia
- A recommended video on World War I -- and the end of Civilization

July 24, 1914 paper reports on Ultimatum:
the July Crisis reaches its zenith
Vienna had received on July 6 the "blank cheque" (Blankoscheck) from Berlin, and, on July 23, 1914, the ultimatum related to the aftermath of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his consort was delivered to Belgrade exactly 100 years ago today. The ultimatum had been drafted in such a way that it would be impossible for any honorable nation to accept it, and Serbia had until Saturday, July 25, 1914, at 6 p.m. to accept it, or risk war.

At this moment, the mechanism that would trigger the war was almost in place but, incredibly, Russia and the British Government prevailed upon Serbia to practically accept all of the ultimatum's demands, except for a minor detail. In France, the secularist elite had alienated the Catholic majority of the population (that was in those days with their eyes fixed in Lourdes for the 25th International Eucharistic Congress, held from July 20 to July 25), and the country was still divided in half right before the conflict.

In any event, with the systemic failure of the elites of some (not all!) of these countries avid for war, even the late-moment efforts for peace failed, and the localized affair became a general European conflagration in just a matter of days.

The following short documentary by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Catholic News Service on all aspects surrounding World War I, from its origins to its consequences, is a little web jewel, because in a very short time (under 20 minutes) and with the help of historians such as Christopher Clark, Margaret MacMillan, David Berlinski and the great Roberto de Mattei, it shows what Europe was and what Europe became.

Chaldean Patriarch to Christians of Mosul:
"We your shepherds will stay with you to the end."
"Our suffering will be salvation to us and others."

I’ll start my speech by the Word of Christ, as His Word is the source of strength and salvation of us, the poor of this lost world: "There is no need to be afraid, little flock" (Luke 12:32).

Our present pain is associated with our Christianity and with the mystery of our Passover (i.e., Easter). Our suffering, if joined to the suffering of our Savior Jesus, "Man of Sorrows", will turn out to be a blessing and salvation to us and to others.

Why the Global Conspiracy of Silence on Persecution of Christians in Iraq?

It is to the greatest honor of Le Figaro, by far the largest and oldest national French daily, that it becomes this Wednesday the first major world newspaper to put on its front page and as its main headline the persecution of Christians in Iraq: "The Calvary of the Christians of Iraq"..

Also on its front page, the main editorial for today, "Silence, on persécute!" (Silence, We are Persecuting!), a dire direct accusation of the accomplices of this genocide, those in silence throughout the West, beginning with the media, a public opinion always prone to demonstrations (but not this time!), and in particular the governments of nations whose populations are mostly Christian at least in name.


LE FIGARO - Editorial
by Étienne de Montety

Silence, We are Persecuting !


In solidarity with our Persecuted Brethren in Iraq and Syria

Friday, August 1, 2014

This was the day chosen by the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter (FSSP) for a worldwide day of Public Adoration of Our Lord Jesus Christ in the Blessed Sacrament in supplication for our persecuted brethren in Iraq, Syria, and the Middle East:

The Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter asks all of its apostolates around the world to dedicate Friday, August 1 to a day of prayer and penance for the Christians who are suffering terrible persecution in Iraq, Syria and elsewhere in the Middle East.

August 1 is the First Friday of the month and the Feast of St. Peter in Chains, which is celebrated as a Third Class Feast in FSSP houses and apostolates. It is the feast in which we read of the great power of the persevering prayer of members of the Church: “Peter therefore was kept in Prison. But prayer was made without ceasing by the Church unto God for him.” (Acts 12:5)

This feast of our Patron should be an invitation to the faithful to join us in Holy Hours and other fitting prayers to beg the Most Holy Trinity that these members of the Mystical Body may persevere in the faith, and that, like St. Peter, they may be delivered from this terrible persecution. May such a day serve as a reminder to us of the stark contrast that stands between our days of vacation and ease, and their daily struggle for survival as they are killed or exiled from their homes. (Source)

It is a day, we believe, chosen wisely by that Fraternity: we please upon all our Catholic brethren, East and West, attached to the Ordinary Form (Mass of Paul VI) or to the Extraordinary Form (Ancient Mass), whatever their theological bent, to join this worldwide prayer day. Whether you consider yourself a more liberal, conservative, traditional, or just plain Catholic, let us join together in this worldwide Adoration of Our Lord Jesus Christ, together with all the Angels and Saints.

It is also appropriately chosen because Pastors and Chaplains will have 10 days to prepare properly, to contact projects that help Christians in need and collect all kinds of contributions for the Christians of the Middle East (from Aid to the Church in Need to CNEWA, the Syrian and Chaldean Catholic Churches, and other organizations), and, in particular, to add to their bulletins and convey to their congregations how to participate next Sunday, July 27.

Please, spread this initiative around. No need to link to us, or to even mention you saw it here -- just copy, paste, and just let this idea spread around throughout the world, through the web, through social networks, to your family and friends.

Bishops, Pastors, priests, join us. First Fridays are a special day of the month, and nothing better next First Friday, August 1, than for all Catholics around the world to join in Adoration before Our Lord to implore his mercy and kindness for our most neglected brethren in Iraq, Syria, and throughout the Middle East.

Conference to honour Michael Davies' 10th Anniversary: London, 4th October

September 25th this year will be the tenth anniversary of the death of one of the giants of the Traditional movement, Michael Davies.

With the support of the Latin Mass Society, a conference has been organised to mark the occasion, to take place on Saturday 4th October. It will take place in the church hall (basement) of St Mary Moorfield, a beautiful and historic church in central London, and will conclude with a Traditional High Mass of Requiem in the church. The conference will be chaired by Michael's son, Adrian Davies.

The speakers are Dr John Rao, Chris Ferrara, Michael Matt, and James Bogle, President of the International Federation Una Voce (FIUV). Tickets are just £15.

Full details and booking form can be found here.

The influence of Michael Davies was and continues to be immense. His numerous books, especially 'Pope John's Council' and 'Pope Paul's New Mass', introduce many to the Traditional Catholic approach to the crisis in the Church. Unfailingly fair-minded and orthodox, they set out the issues with great precision and clarity, and even a decade after the author's death are highly recommended.

To see a selection of his books on sale see here (new) and here (Amazon, mostly used).
There are a good number of downloadable talks by him here and here.

As well as his books, Michael was active on the Committee of the Latin Mass Society, and as President of the International Federation Una Voce.

The interior of St Mary Moorfield, in Passiontide (before the start of Tenebrae) this year.

20th century demotions for Saint Mary Magdalene

A multitude of customs and traditions were lost in the second half of the twentieth century.  The 1962 calendar today marks the third class feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, penitent, which the novus ordo calendar calls a "memorial" for Saint Mary Magdalene with no title after her name (unlike other saints' days). The 1969 missal also changed the Gospel of the Mass to remove the penitent woman references in Saint Luke's seventh chapter, verses 36-50, which concludes with our Lord proclaiming: "Thy faith has made thee safe; go in peace."

Keeping Secrets at Mass

There are times (usually in the summer) when it happens that no one else is available to serve the traditional Latin Mass and I have the opportunity to don cassock and surplice. It is hard to describe my feelings on these occasions. Normally my perch is either up in the choir loft directing the schola or down in the pews following along in a missal. I do not often have the opportunity to see the Mass “close up” like this, and it always moves me—not to mention the fact that kneeling for so long on marble, keeping my back straight, is a good penance.

One thing that struck me this summer as I served a number of Masses is the immense beauty of the priest saying the “Secret” prayer silently—and since this is an example of a practice that liturgists in the middle of the 20th century assumed ought to be changed (and so it was changed in the Novus Ordo), it seems worthwhile to ponder it more carefully, lest we make the same mistake with some future edition of the traditional Missale Romanum.

At first, it bothered me that, whenever I was serving, I could not know what the priest was praying in the Secret, unless I remembered to look it up before or after Mass. But as time went on, the thick silence of that particular prayer, right before the great offering of the sacrifice (and at a moment when the Novus Ordo has habituated me to expect to hear something), made me realize with a new vividness how the Mass is a prayer directed to God first and foremost, to such an extent that my hearing and following of this prayer is secondary. The priest was not addressing it to me, but to God—and as I experienced this orientation of the prayer, it humbled me, focused me, purified me of some subtle remnant of self-interest that would take offense at not understanding everything. “It is good to hide the secret of a king” (Tobias 12:7).

Now, I know some of you are thinking: “Wait a minute, St. Thomas Aquinas says that we worship God not for His sake, since He gains nothing from our prayers, but for our sake, that we may be perfected by ordering ourselves to Him. And so it is crucial that we understand what we are saying; otherwise, why not have the entire Mass be a completely silent act of adoration culminating in communion? Surely, things are said aloud in order to be grasped by us, since God has no need of our words.” Not surprisingly, I agree with this point; I would never say that we should have no idea of what is going on or what is being prayed in the liturgy. This is why much of the Mass, whether Solemn, High, or Low, is sung or spoken aloud, and this is why, in an age of near-universal literacy, daily missals are an excellent aid. My own spiritual life has been immensely nourished by years of following along in my missal, which, together with the singing, the postures and gestures, and simply watching and listening, has been an incomparable apprenticeship to the sacred liturgy, the Church’s school of prayer par excellence.

Journalist pleads: "Can we please stop blaming journalists?"
The case of Italian Bishop Nunzio Galantino

No "expressionless faces" from these pro-abortion activists !
Sorry, Bishop Galantino prefers to call it "interruption of pregnancy".

Bishop Nunzio Galantino, new Secretary-General and most powerful man of the Italian Episcopal Conference (CEI), gained instant worldwide fame in May when criticizing the "expressionless faces" of Catholics praying the rosary in front of abortion clinics. By ridiculing their faces, with which he does not "identify himself," he humiliates all those people who risk life, limb, liberty, and fortune for the simple "crime" of praying the rosary in front of the greatest symbols of degeneracy of our crumbling remains of civilization, the slaughterhouses of human beings known as "abortion clinics." Not that Bishop Galantino, first mentioned by us weeks ago, was ever found in front of an abortion mill, not at all. Now, in what one might call an exercise in the "intellectual acrobatics of shamelessness," he says he did not say what he indeed said. He offended millions of faithful Catholics, and now he claims he was offended! The gall! 

Thankfully, there are more and more boys calling attention to the nakedness of some of our new emperor-bishops - and one of them is none other than one of Italy's most respected religious journalists, Marco Tosatti, senior religious correspondent for major Italian daily La Stampa. Yes, even Italian journalists are getting pretty tired of journalists always getting the blame.


Galantino: patches and holes.
The old game “it’s always the fault of the journalists” doesn’t work sometimes. 
 And some cures are worse than the disease...

July 21, 2014

Galantino, patches and holes. I am in a place where the connections to Internet are fleeting and discontinuous, and so I am only now seeing the news that Zenit reports an interview given by Secretary-General of the CEI, Bp. Nunzio Galantino, to monthly “Sempre”.

Bp. Galantino responds to the criticisms directed at him. “An aggression which in reality, hurt me a bit.” The reference, writes Zenit, is to the controversy following his statements when he sustained that he couldn’t identify, “with the expressionless faces reciting the Rosary outside [abortion] clinics.”

Nova et Vetera Publishes Multilingual Response to Cardinal Kasper
- And an explosive revelation on the upcoming Synod

A reliable source has informed us that a certain bishop in Germany is worried about the direction preparations for the upcoming Extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family are taking. The bishop is said to have claimed that supporters of Cardinal Kasper's proposals have taken steps (apparently successfully) to limit the involvement of the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. To understand why some have pushed Cardinal Müller aside, remember this.

Meanwhile, the Journal Nova et Vetera has published a response to Cardinal Kasper's proposals by eight American theologians, seven of them Dominicans, and most of them professors at Pontifical faculties of theology. The response, simultaneously published in English, German, Spanish, French, and Italian, comprehensively refutes the innovations proposed by Cardinal Kasper, showing point for point how they contradict the perennial Tradition of the Church.


The Unstoppable Traditional Mass: Around the world with the TLM
- Fully-traditional Ancient Chapel for the FSSP in the Bavarian Capital
- Fully-traditional Brand New Chapel for the IBP in the Brazilian capital

1. Munich, Bavaria, Germany

Damenstiftskirche Sankt Anna, Choir

From Germany, a report that had been under embargo for weeks: the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter (FSSP), that already had a small presence in the Bavarian Capital, will have a permanent basis in the city - the second major world diocese to open up a permanent setting for the FSSP in just a few weeks time (the first having been Los Angeles).

Starting on September 1, the glorious Collegiate Church of Saint Anne (Damenstiftskirche Sankt Anna), a historic chapel in Munich, will host the FSSP permanently, with daily Traditional Masses. The apostolate will be headed by Father Christian Jäger, and the Mass times will be: on Sundays and public holidays. 9:30 a.m./ on Mondays, 8:00 a.m.; from Tuesdays to Fridays, 5:30 p.m.; on Saturdays, 8:00 a.m. (The local telephone number for more information is 094 46/99 11 051.)

Further information will be posted on the FSSP Germany website. Our heartfelt congratulations to the FSSP, Fr. Jäger, and the local community! Our gratitude to the local Archbishop of Munich and Freising, Cardinal Reinhard Marx!


2. Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brazil

Capela de Nossa Senhora das Dores, still receiving its final touches

On July 13, 2014, a historic event of huge significance for the future of the Traditional Mass in the largest Latin American nation took place in the Brazilian national capital city, Brasilia. A brand new completely traditional Chapel was opened and blessed with the presence of Auxiliary Bishop José Aparecido Gonçalves de Almeida.

The Chapel of Nossa Senhora das Dores (Our Lady of Sorrows / Our Lady of Dolours) is run by the Institute of the Good Shepherd (IBP), and the local priest is Fr. Daniel Pinheiro, who already celebrated the Traditional Mass in the city in loaned churches. Now, the IBP has a full chapel and the ability to offer daily Mass - Sundays at 10 a.m.

We are back to the regular version of Islam: no need for warning labels
And, please, leave the old Catholic Encyclopedia alone

A perfectly European-looking gentleman: Abdülmecid II,
 last Turkish Caliph - Paris, circa 1935

In the recent past, when we have linked to the Old (1907-1913/4) Catholic Encyclopedia, a very important work of reference for Catholics in the public domain, we have only been linking to and recommending the Catholic Answers version, available here as "The Original Catholic Encyclopedia".


There are two main reasons: the first one is that each article includes an image of the scanned page of the original print version so that the reader may be able to verify by himself the accuracy of the transcript.

There is, however, an even more important reason. Allow us to use as an example the essential article on Islam (or rather, on Mohammed and Mohammedanism), written by the great Mesopotamian-born American scholar and Chaldean Catholic priest, Fr. Gabriel Oussani, born in Baghdad and raised in... Mosul, both capitals of the respective Turkish Vilayets of Baghdad and Mosul, which, together with the Vilayet of Basra, would become the new Kingdom of Iraq after the Great War.

This is the famous conclusion to his article:

In matters political Islam is a system of despotism at home and of aggression abroad. The Prophet commanded absolute submission to the imam. In no case was the sword to be raised against him. The rights of non-Moslem subjects are of the vaguest and most limited kind, and a religious war is a sacred duty whenever there is a chance of success against the "Infidel". Medieval and modern Mohammedan, especially Turkish, persecutions of both Jews and Christians are perhaps the best illustration of this fanatical religious and political spirit.

Clear, right? Incontestable, right?

Now, if you search for this article in the more famous online version of the Catholic Encyclopedia, this is what you get before you even start reading Fr. Oussani's words, that were based on a lifetime of personal experience of Islam as a Mesopotamian Christian: "To complement this article, which was taken from the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent recommends a prayerful reading of 'Nostra Aetate' from the Second Vatican Council." This is unfortunately not the only case in which such warning notes are present.

Sorry, the Catholic Encyclopedia is a reference work that should be presented as close as possible to its original content. It is offensive and condescending to present that as a kind of  "warning label", meaning, "now this is what the following unenlightened pre-Conciliar author thought about Islam, but first read the Conciliar text 'prayerfully' "-- supposedly, we gather, because Fr. Oussani did not understand what Mohammed and his religion were all about, unlike the Conciliar Fathers, and did he write this article 'prayerfully' anyway?... Owners can place notes wherever they want on their websites, but they must avoid interfering with the content of their works of reference, in particular the Catholic Encyclopedia, otherwise they render the reference work untrustworthy. For this reason, we insist in our recommendation of the "Original Catholic Encyclopedia" version of the work. It is a historical work, and should be presented and preserved as such. Fr. Oussani's article is a perfect example of the error of anachronistic editorial notes: Oussani knew Islam intimately, from his very first moment on this earth, in such a way that some Conciliar Fathers couldn't possibly express at a time (1960s) that we can now see was a very brief period of apparent Islamic calm and secularized Kemalist, Nasserist, Baathist, and Pahlevi regimes, even if some individual bishops certainly did know it well. This is what Nostra Aetate had to say: "The Church regards with esteem also the Moslems. They adore the one God, living and subsisting in Himself; merciful and all- powerful, the Creator of heaven and earth ... .Since in the course of centuries not a few quarrels and hostilities have arisen between Christians and Moslems, this sacred synod urges all to forget the past and to work sincerely for mutual understanding and to preserve as well as to promote together for the benefit of all mankind social justice and moral welfare, as well as peace and freedom."

Really? What did that add to your knowledge of Islam and, editorially, to Fr. Oussani's article?

Besides the utter strangeness of members of one religion defining in one of their official documents what members of another religion supposedly believe and how they should act, the only effect is cognitive dissonance: how can such a nice and peaceful confession cause so much suffering throughout the world? Because any person (not just any Catholic or any Christian, but any breathing person with minimal sensitive skills) can sense that the game is up, that something is moving deep inside as well as on the surface of the Muslim world, the dormant conquering will inseparable from the reality of the Muslim faith is agitating globally. British author David Selbourne (no Catholic he), wrote some sobering words for Fabian Socialist British weekly New Statesman in May (we do not agree with all points of the article, but we highly recommend its reading):

The complexities (and double-games) of the Islamic world are a labyrinth for the “infidel”. It is a labyrinth that western reason, such as it now is, has never mastered, and that it cannot master now with hellfire missiles and unmanned drones.

Wearied or sickened by all this? Yes. But it is the fate of the impotent western powers that is being determined by it. For the “jihad” is advancing in Syria to the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, while the muez­zin’s call to an increasingly ardent faith grows more insistent throughout the Islamic world.

After the publication in the US in 2005 of my book The Losing Battle With Islam, [then Massachusetts Senator and current American Secretary of State John] Kerry rang me to discuss the arguments in it. When he became secretary of state I told him (with some presumption) that the non-Muslim world is too unaware of what is afoot, hobbled by its wishful thinking and lack of knowledge, and whistling in the dark. In a position paper I wrote for him, I set out a list of the failures that the west, and especially the US, has on its hands. Among them are the failure to recognise the ambition of radical Islam; the failure to condemn the silence of most Muslims at the crimes committed in their names; the failure to respond adequately to the persecution of Christians in many Muslim lands; the failure to grasp the nature of the non-military skills that are being deployed against the non-Muslim world – skills of manoeuvre, skills in deceiving the gullible, skills in making temporary truces in order to gain time (as in Iran); and, perhaps above all, the failure to realise the scale and speed of Islam’s advance.
“If things continue like this,” I told friend Kerry, “the history of our age may one day be written under a caliphate’s supervision.” I added brashly: “Get your aides to read the Quran. Keep political correctors at bay ...”. ... [T]oday’s Islam is the most redoubtable adversary to the American imperium it has ever faced, the challenge of the Comintern included.
To the aid of Islam has also come the betrayal by much of today’s left of its notionally humane principles, as Christians are assaulted and murdered (shades of what was done to the Jews in the 1930s) and their churches desecrated and destroyed from Egypt to the Central African Republic, from Iran to Indonesia, and from Pakistan to Nigeria.

You Report: Just a typical TLM ... by a Capuchin

72 Years Ago:
"Let us first examine ourselves with sense of repentance and humility"

"Let neither men nor beasts, oxen nor sheep, taste any thing: let them not feed, nor drink water. And let men and beasts be covered with sackcloth, and cry to the Lord with all their strength, and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the iniquity that is in their hands. Who can tell if God will turn, and forgive: and will turn away from his fierce anger, and we shall not perish?" (Jonas / Jonah, chapter 3)

The ruins of Nineveh are, of course, within the current limits of the city of Mosul.


Now, too, everything around us points to a punishment from God. But, thanks be to God, it is not yet too late for us. We can still avert it if we recognize the time of grace, if we recognize what will bring us peace. And that is only the return to God, from whom for many years already a great portion of the world has turned away. All human means have failed; only God can still bring a solution.

Beloved faithful, let us first examine ourselves with a deep sense of repentance and humility. Are we not, after all, partly responsible for the disasters that affect us? Have we always fulfilled the duties of justice and charity toward our neighbor? Have we not sometimes entertained feelings of unholy hatred and bitterness? Have we always sought our refuge in God, our Heavenly Father?

When we turn to ourselves, we will have to confess that we have all failed. Peccavimus ante Dominum Deum nostrum: We have sinned before the Lord our God. [Baruch 1,17]

We also know, though, that God will not despise a contrite and humbled heart. [Psalm 50, 19] Cor contritum et humiliatum non despicies. We therefore turn to him and beg him with childlike confidence for his mercy. He himself tells us, "Ask, and it shall be given you: seek, and you shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to you." (Luke 11,9)

July 20, 1942

[Personal recess for several days.]

Nun: The Sign of Genocide

Please, join the August 1st Day of Adoration, Prayer and Solidarity for 

In solidarity with our Persecuted Brethren in Iraq and Syria

Nun (ن), the 14th letter of the Arabic alphabet (the equivalent of letter N in our Roman alphabet), is the first letter of the word Nasara (نصارى : Nazarenes), the way Muslims have called Christians since the beginning of their invasion of the Christian world in the 7th century -- Christians under Muslim rule never called themselves thus, since the intent of Muslims was to portray Christians as a contemptible and disobedient sect.

It is the same name of the equivalent letter (נ) in the Hebrew alphabet (also a Semitic language), and it reminds us of the words of Jeremiah, also crying for an exile of his people sent to Mesopotamia:

Nun. The yoke of my iniquities hath watched: they are folded together in his hand, and put upon my neck: my strength is weakened: the Lord hath delivered me into a hand out of which I am not able to rise. (Lamentations, 1)

In their genocidal physical elimination of Christians from the Mesopotamian city of Mosul, Muslim terrorists marked each Christian-owned institution and building with this letter, for the extermination of holdouts and expropriation of their belongings:

They mean it as a mark of shame, we must then wear it as a mark of hope: Yes, we are in the army of the Resurrected Nazarene, the Master and Lord of the Universe, the Man who is God Almighty, the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity. You may kill our brethren and expel them, but we Christians will never go away. 


Note: Below, the full translation of the interview granted by the Syrian (Syriac) Catholic Patriarch of Antioch, Ignace Joseph III Younan, to Sergio Cenofanti of Vatican Radio (in Italian).

It's over
Genocide has been accomplished

[Cross removed this week from dome of Syriac Orthodox Cathedral, Mosul, Iraq]

For two thousand years, our dearest brethren saw it all from Mosul: Romanized Greeks, Hellenized Persians, Hellenized Romans from all origins later called "Byzantines", Armenians, Arabs from the desert with a religion of the sword, Egyptians, Crusaders, Mongols, Turks, French and British, "Independence"... Then the clumsiest Empire in history, an Empire unwanted by most voters, unwarranted by the Republic's own Constitution, led by bellicose hawks motivated by God knows what, justifying their actions on untruths, arrived, upsetting a balance that was not the best, but was best of all possible outcomes (at that moment). Two Vicars of Christ had cried their hearts out in vain warning of the grave danger of an intervention, of the, "extremisms that could stem from it."

Things were never the same.

For years, we have been warning that support for terrorists in neighboring Syria would surely end badly. But even we could not imagine that it would end so badly so fast and over such a vast area. And yet, the insane Empire-builders are still handing billions and billions, and hundreds of millions of dollars to "moderate" terrorists! Where's the outrage? Have you contacted your congressman, senator, president, MP, prime-minister expressing your outrage, begging this madness to stop?


This evening, our brethren the Syrian (Syriac) Catholics and Chaldean Catholics, who worship in the language of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and all other Christians are gone from Mosul. There may be some hidden in various places, but all public signs of their presence are gone. The seat of the Syrian Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul was completely burned down by the terrorist "Islamic State" this very evening, July 18, 2014, several converging reports seem to confirm.**

After two thousand years, it is finished. It's over.*** Who will pay for the lasting damage lying Western politicians created by starting a process that would lead to what not even the first Islamic rulers, thirteen centuries ago, ever did, the obliteration of Christian life and populations? "Revenge is mine, and I will repay them in due time," says the Lord. His judgment over this generation and their rulers will be overwhelming and frightful. 

In Mosul, genocide* has been accomplished. Where's the outrage? There's no more outrage, just silence - cut by sounds of blades, gunshots, bombs, and the muezzin's loud calls to prayer.

[See also: Nun: The Sign of Genocide]

You suggest: Crowdfunding for a French Documentary

Our friend Henri Adam de Villiers, well-known worldwide for his great work at the helm of the Paris-based Schola Sainte-Cécile and also an occasional contributor to the New Liturgical Movement web log, writes us in support of this crowdfunding effort led by Mr. Loïc Lawin, a young filmmaker, to produce a documentary on the Schola, which will also be available in English. If you think it a worthwhile effort, consider contributing to it.


Guest Op-Ed: The Council Opened the Church to the Prince of this World

By Fr. Paul J. McDonald

It is a very strict "dogma" of the ecclesiastical-politically-correct orthodox mainstream, which admits the grave malady that afflicts the visible Kingdom of God on earth, the Catholic Church, that the Second Vatican Council is in no way to blame for the malaise. It is, rather, the misinterpretation of the Council which is to blame, since only positive fruits could ever have come from it.

But in his encyclical on the Holy Spirit, Dominum et Vificantem, 26, Pope S.John Paul II seems to say that the Council consciously took a risk of opening the Church to the world, that is, the world that is dominated by the "Prince of this world." It seems that he thought the risk was well worth it, for the sake of evangelization, but that it was a risk:
"One must learn how to "discern" the salvific fruits of the Spirit bestowed in the Council carefully from everything that may instead come originally from the "prince of this world." This discernment in implementing the Council's work is especially necessary in view of the fact that the Council opened itself widely to the contemporary world."

So, according to the pope who dedicated his 26 years of Petrine ministry to implementing the Council, the Council "opened itself widely to the contemporary world" which means that "what may... come from the 'Prince of this world'" is perhaps more present in the life of the Church.

Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter - now in Los Angeles
Fraternidad Sacerdotal San Pedro - ahora en Los Ángeles


Ratzinger: Hierarchy, Theologians must not scandalize "the little ones":
- Primary good of the Church is protecting Faith of Ordinary People
- Those in authority cannot abuse the Faithful's readiness to listen


"Whosoever shall scandalize even one of these little ones that believe in me, it would be better for him that a millstone were hanged around his neck and he were cast into the sea." (Mk 9:42).

In April 1986, during a visit to Ontario, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, gave a keynote address to the community of Saint Michael's College, Toronto -- it was later published in the Toronto Journal of Theology under the title "The Church as an Essential Dimension of Theology." This became widely known as the Cardinal's "Toronto Lecture."

What is less known is that the address had originally been written and delivered in a language in which the future Pope Benedict XVI reasons and writes much more comfortably, Italian, in a visit to the Diocese of Brescia: it was on March 22, 1986, in a gathering organized by the Communio journal. Based on this original text of the address, our contributor Francesca Romana brings one of the most precious pearls of theological wisdom in the post-conciliar years.

It was a thought that had been clear in the Cardinal's mind, and that would be increasingly part of his concern: those in authority in the Church -- theologians, certainly, but priests and bishops as well -- must realize the immense responsibility they bear in preserving the faith of the most unprotected, the believers themselves, those who have no power, sheep in a world of wolves, hens in a world of foxes.

In other words: in a worldly setting, usually someone has to work hard to be heard. In the Church, there is certainly quite a lot of hard work, but the reason we give more relevance to, for instance, what a pope speaks than to what a cardinal says; to what a cardinal says more than to what a regular bishop says; to what a regular bishop says than to what a priest says; the reason is that the person is in that position, not that the person is particularly bright, particularly enlightened, superior in a gnostic/initiated or pagan sense (that is not the sense of the ministerial priesthood and hierarchy in Christianity), or proved himself necessarily worthy of that position. That was the Cardinal's main point.

Therefore, in order to honor the position of authority God allowed him to have, and the trust we, the "little ones", are willing to give him in faith, the man in an ecclesiastical position of teaching authority has the obligation not to abuse this trust by speaking error, scandal, or nonsense. That is, it is not a one-way street of "pay, pray, and obey, and I'll say what I want": believers must respect, but they deserve respect as well from popes, bishops, priests, and theologians, who cannot abuse their positions. If they breach the trust they did nothing to earn, they should not be astonished that the faithful suddenly notice the emperor's new clothes, and think accordingly.


Cardinal Ratzinger in 1986

A separation of the sort between proclamation and doctrine is in profound conflict with the essence of the Biblical Word. Such a separation does nothing other than revive that division between the psychists and gnostics, with which the so-called historic Gnosis attempted to create a free area for itself, and de facto expelled itself from the Church and from the Faith. That separation [between proclamation and doctrine], in fact, presupposes the relationship there is in paganism between myth and philosophy, religious symbolism and enlightened reason; the religious criticism effected by Christianity was directed against that separation; as such, it was also critical of class-based religious thinking.

This resulted in the emancipation of ordinary [unlearned] people and also claimed for them the right to be  in the true sense of the word– philosophers; which means to say, having the knowledge of that which is characteristic and peculiar to man just as much as the academics have this knowledge; or, rather even more than the academics. The words of Jesus about the foolishness of the wise and the wisdom of the little ones (in particular Matt. 11:25 and parallels) have exactly this aim: to establish Christianity as the people’s religion, as a religion without a two-class system.

The "Gay Lobby" won (in the Vatican as well)

[Updates - Jul 18, 1200 GMT: after global outcry, the image was changed to a picture of the bishop. Full translation of article at the end of post.]

Well, it seems the takeover is complete.

This from Vatican Radio:

Stephan Ackermann, bishop of Trier, is critical of proposals to “heal” homosexuality. There is no ecclesial backing for such initiatives, Ackermann said Wednesday evening in Saabrücken.*

No, the comment is not the issue, just another symptom of what Fr. Dariusz Oko called the "Homoheresy". The problem is how this was presented in the official radio of the Holy See, Vatican Radio (Radio Vaticana): shame has been utterly and completely lost.

What is the point of having a radio, a website, a communications team, if this is what comes out of it? What is the point of it all, if the Church's most senior communications source has become a completely worldly, mundane, immorality-promoting institution? Do not read further if you are a minor or are a person of a more sensitive disposition:

Great Orators of the Order of Friars Preachers

"A man who governs his passions is master of the world. We must either rule them, or be ruled by them." Saint Dominic

Martin Mosebach on the Liturgy and the Moral Life

Giuseppe Crespi, Communion

In many dioceses in Germany it is customary for the bishop to invite artists to a meeting on Ash Wednesday, an Aschermittwoch der Künstler, an idea taken from Paul Claudel, who had organized something similar in Paris. On Ash Wednesday 2013, the novelist Martin Mosebach was invited to speak to assembled artists in Frankfurt (diocese of Limburg), on the theme of the traditional liturgy of the Roman rite. It need scarcely be said that is highly unusual for a traditionalist thinker to be invited to a regular diocesan setting to speak on that subject.

Toward the end of his speech Mosebach made the following point:

One difficulty that arose from the Church's abandonment of her traditional liturgy was surely quite unexpected. Many who observe the Church from a distance, and this includes many nominal Catholics, now see the Church as embodied principally in the moral teachings that she requires her faithful to follow. These teachings include many prescriptions and proscriptions that contradict the customs of the secular world. In the days when the Church was above all oriented toward the immediate encounter with God in the Liturgy however, these commandments were not seen merely in relation to the living of daily life, but were concrete means of preparation for complete participation in the liturgy.

The liturgy  gave morality its goal. The question was: What must I do in order to attain to perfect Communion with the Eucharistic Christ? What actions will result in my only being able to look on Him from afar? Moral evil then appeared not merely as the that which is bad in the abstract, but as that which is to be avoided in order to attain to a concrete goal. And when someone broke a commandment, and thus excluded himself from Holy Communion, Confession was ready as the means to repair the damage and prepare him to receive Communion again. A surprising result of the reform is that while the Church of the past, which was really oriented toward the liturgy, appeared to many outside observers as being scandalously lax in moral matters, the current Church appears to contemporaries (and not only to those outside) as unbearably moralistic, unmerciful, and meanly puritanical. (From: "Das Paradies auf Erden: Liturgie als Fester zum Jenseits," Una Voce Korrespondenz 43 (2013), pp. 213-214; translation by Sacerdos Romanus).

Supreme Liturgical Authority, in groundbreaking text, says:
- Summorum Pontificum provides equal standing for both Forms
- Conditions for participation at Traditional Mass same as in new Mass
- and much more

Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos
On July 25, 2013, feast of the Patron Saint of Spain, Saint James the Greater, Cardinal Cañizares Llovera, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, put his signature on the preface to a remarkable work, the doctoral thesis presented by his fellow Spaniard, Fr. Alberto Soria Jiménez, O.S.B., dedicated to a profound canonical consideration of the juridical nature of the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, its dispositions related to the forms and uses of the Roman Rite, and the history that led to it.

Fr. Soria is a monk in the abbey of the Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen (Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos), a Solesmes foundation near the Spanish capital, and his thesis was defended and approved at the Faculty of Canon Law of the University of San Dámaso, the main house for the formation of priests and theologians owned by the Archdiocese of Madrid, on May 29, 2013. The thesis was published just days ago by Spanish publisher "Ediciones Cristiandad" under the title "The Principles of Interpretation of the Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum" ("Los principios de interpretación del motu proprio Summorum Pontificum"), which is why the Cardinal's text has only now become available. 

Cardinal Cañizares' preface is a long presentation of the book, and it obviously includes many references to the work itself – but what makes it particularly special is the depth of the Cardinal’s appreciation for the motu proprio, and his defense (which had always been defended by those of us deeply appreciative of the nature of Summorum Pontificum) that what the motu proprio established in law was nothing less than the juridical equality of both forms of the Roman Rite. It is a groundbreaking text and we have translated below the most important excerpts of the Spanish original. 


Card. Cañizares Llovera

We find ourselves before a work that tackles, scientifically, a theme that in the past few years has been the object of heated controversies. Nevertheless, from its very beginning two characteristics of this work must be considered: its academic character and the belonging of the author to a community that is faithful to the great principles of the liturgy, but in which the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite is not celebrated. This has allowed him to observe the situation "from the outside," rendering possible the great objectivity reflected in his research.
The conception, clearly present both in the motu proprio and in the documents related to it, that the inherited liturgy is a wealth to be preserved, is to be understood in the spirit of the liturgical movement in the line of Romano Guardini, to which Benedict XVI owed so much of his personal relationship with the liturgy since his youth. The detailed and documented history of the process, from its beginnings in the 1970s up until today, that the author of this work presents to us, shows how this legislation was not the momentary result of pressure, nor a reflection of the personal and isolated opinion of the Pope, but rather that other persons had long wished for a similar solution. These criteria of the young priest Joseph Ratzinger were consolidated and purified throughout the years, and were taken up by John Paul II, who had considered the possibility of providing appropriate legislation.

The mood among the cardinals designated to reflect upon this theme was favorable [Rorate note: reference to the 1986 commission - cf our 2007 post on the revelation by Cardinal Castrillón Hoyos]. The cardinalatial commission established by John Paul II, in which the influence of Cardinal Ratzinger was undeniable, had proposed to, "eliminate the impression that each missal is the temporal product of each historic epoch," and had affirmed that, "liturgical norms, not being truly and properly 'laws,' cannot be abrogated, but subrogated: the preceding ones in the subsequent ones." The demonstration that is very important, and present in this investigation, is that the attitude of Benedict XVI is not so much a novelty or a change of direction, but rather an accomplishment of what John Paul II had already undertook -- with initiatives such as the consultation of the cardinalatial commission, the motu proprio Ecclesia Dei, and the creation of the Pontifical Commission of the same name, the mass of Cardinal Castrillón Hoyos in Santa Maria Maggiore in 2003, or the declarations of the pope to the Congregation for Divine Worship that same year.

The history of the process reveals that, from the beginning, the wish to preserve the traditional form of the mass was not limited to integrists, but that people of the world of culture or writers, such as Agatha Christie and Jorge Luis Borges, signed a letter demanding its preservation, and that Saint Josemaría Escrivá made use of a personal indult granted spontaneously by Abp. Bugnini himself. It is also to be noted the concern of Benedict XVI to emphasize that the Church does not discard her past: by declaring that the Missal of 1962, "was never juridically abrogated," he made manifest the coherence that the Church wishes to maintain. In effect, she cannot allow herself to disregard, forget, or renounce the treasures and rich heritage of the tradition of the Roman Rite, because the historical heritage of the liturgy of the Church cannot be abandoned, nor can everything be established ex novo without the amputation of fundamental parts of the same Church.

Another important aspect comes from the reading of the historical narrative in this work: the advances that have taken place throughout these years regarding the pastoral sensibility for these faithful, the greater attention to their persons and to their spiritual welfare. In effect, the legislation was at first [Rorate note: "Agatha Christie" Indult, personal indults, Quattuor abhinc annos, Ecclesia Dei adflicta] very limited, it took into account only the clerical world and it practically ignored the lay faithful, considering that the first concern was disciplinarian: to control the potential disobedience to the newly promulgated legislation. With time, the situation took on a more pastoral aspect, in order to meet the needs of these faithful, which ends up being reflected in the strong change of tone of the terminology being used: it is thus that the "problem" of the priests and faithful who remained attached to the so-called tridentine rite is not mentioned anymore, but rather the "wealth" that its preservation represents.

What was thus created was a situation that was analogous to the one that had been normal for so many centuries, because we must recall that Saint Pius V had not forbidden the use of the liturgical traditions that were at least 200 years old. Many religious orders and dioceses therefore preserved their own rite; as Archbishop of Toledo, I was able to live this reality with the Mozarabic Rite. The motu proprio modified the recent situation, by making clear that the celebration of the extraordinary form should be normal, eliminating every restriction [todo condicionamiento] related to the number of interested faithful, and not setting up other conditions for the participation in said celebration than the ones normally required for any public celebration of the mass, which allowed for a wide access to this heritage that, while it is by law a spiritual patrimony of all the faithful, is, in fact, ignored by a great part of them. In effect, the current restrictions to the celebration in the extraordinary form are not different from those in place for any other celebration, in whatever rite. Those who wish to see, in the distinction made by the motu proprio of cum and sine populo, a restriction to the extraordinary form forget that, with the missal promulgated by Paul VI, the celebration cum populo without the authorization and agreement by the parish priest or rector of the church is not allowed either.

On the other hand, the possibility, expressly contemplated in the motu proprio, that in the celebration sine populo the spontaneous presence of faithful be admitted without obstacles (an expression that had provoked more than one ironic remark by the critics of the document) simply allowed for the end of the strange circumstances by which, though celebrated by a priest in a completely regular canonical situation, this mass remained closed to the participation of the faithful simply because of the ritual form being used, a form that was on the other hand fully recognized by the Church. The situation of the 1970s -- in which priests who could not adopt the new missal for reasons of health, age, etc, were condemned to never again celebrating the Eucharist with a community, as small as it could be -- was also prevented, which would be seen, according to the current sensibility, as discriminatory. On the other hand, to deliberately restrict the mass cum populo, limiting in practice the celebration of the extraordinary form sine populo, would contradict the words and intentions of the conciliar constitution: "... whenever rites ... make provision for communal celebration involving the presence and active participation of the faithful, this way of celebrating them is to be preferred, so far as possible, to a celebration that is individual and quasi-private." (Sacrosanctum Concilium, 27)


Et ut in musica in convivio vini

Source:  Scuola Ecclesia Mater via Messa in Latino (original text in Italian)

Homily preached by Father Benedict Nivakoff, O.S.B.
On the Feast of the Holy Father Benedict
Basilica of Saint Benedict
Norcia, Italy,
July 11, 2014

“The memory of a saint is like music at a feast with wine”.  This is what the book of Wisdom tells us in today’s Epistle reading from chapter 49.  Like music that accompanies drinking wine, or even beer if you prefer, but in any case in the context of a great feast where one eats and drinks well, and where one as well hears beautiful music.  This rings true especially for us who live here in Norcia, this poetic description of a festive banquet in which we celebrate a special occasion,  a day marked by solemnity, an important person.  We think, in this context, of every March 21st, the day on which we celebrate the transitus of Saint Benedict, his passing to eternity.

There are processions, special dress, dinners, the participation of the civic officials, there are fireworks, and so forth.  But although this great feasting makes this event  solemn and happy, it also can obscure the reality that is being celebrated.  For this reason we can take advantage of July 11 for a more intimate form of festivity, we monks with the citizens of this town who venerate Saint Benedict. 


Mount Carmel in 1894
Mater et Decor Carmeli, ora pro nobis !

They had taken their usual round through Cana, mounting a hillock from which the long mirror of Gennesareth could be seen, and passing on, always bearing to the right, under the shadow of Thabor until once more Esdraelon spread itself beneath like a grey-green carpet, a vast circle, twenty miles across, sprinkled sparsely with groups of huts, white walls and roofs, with Nain visible on the other side, Carmel heaving its long form far off on the right, and Nazareth nestling a mile or two away on the plateau on which they had halted.

It was a sight of extraordinary peace, and seemed an extract from some old picture-book designed centuries ago. Here was no crowd of roofs, no pressure of hot humanity, no terrible evidences of civilisation and manufactory and strenuous, fruitless effort. A few tired Jews had come back to this quiet little land, as old people may return to their native place, with no hope of renewing their youth, or refinding their ideals, but with a kind of sentimentality that prevails so often over more logical motives, and a few more barrack-like houses had been added here and there to the obscure villages in sight. But it was very much as it had been a hundred years ago.

The plain was half shadowed by Carmel, and half in dusty golden light. Overhead the clear Eastern sky was flushed with rose, as it had flushed for Abraham, Jacob, and the Son of David.

Austrian Priest mentions hell and purgatory to students:
Diocese then forbids him from teaching

Thomas Ladner (in the photo) is a 36 year old Austrian priest, usually dressed in a cassock and collaborator in the parish of Stans, in Tyrol, a small town of 1500 souls, where he also teaches religion in the primary school. Before the end of the school year, he was informed of the withdrawal of his permit to teach by the diocese of Innsbruck. The priest’s fault, according to the diocesan school office, would be that he had spoken to his young students about The Four Last Things, among which he mentioned hell and purgatory; “lessons not suitable for children at their stage in life,” that he had dealt with themes on the family in “terms no longer up-to-date,” and of having used “rhetorical language,” or rather – too traditional.

The reaction this time came from the parishioners themselves, who appreciate Father Ladner’s humane manner and pastoral work, above all with the young. Parents launched a petition, while the mayor wrote a harsh letter to the curia complaining about the agitation in the town brought about by such an “unacceptable decision.”

The story was reported in the local newspaper Tiroler Tageszeitung, but, despite the clamour, the diocese and the Bishop, Manfred Scheuer, until now, have not shown any signs of changing their mind.

[Source: Il Timone. Tip and translation: Contributor Francesca Romana. Also in German, with more details of the declarations of diocesan schools superintendent Josef Stock.]


[Update: find the full translation of the German text below - translation by Elliot Bougis]

Innsbruck: Diocese bans beloved priest from giving religious instruction

Who is giving the numbers to the Pope?

Marco Tosatti 
senior religious correspondent for La Stampa

It is difficult to write about something that is vague and has indistinct contours as in an interview with seeming contradictions, but not contradictory in a general sense, such as the latest interview between Eugenio Scalfari and the Pope.  But there is an aspect of the conversation that merits attention, because it poses questions of great weight.   One of these questions concerns sexual abuse by clerics.  At a certain point, in his reconstruction of the conversation, Scalfari writes that he asked how widespread this phenomenon is. The Pope responded, according to Scalfari, in this way:

“Many of my consultants who are in this struggle with me assure me on the basis of reliable data that they estimate that pedophilia in the Church is at the level of two percent.  This should have reassured me, but I must say to you that it did not reassure me at all.  I consider it on the contrary a most grave matter.  The two percent of pedophiles are priests and even bishops and cardinals.  And others, even more numerous, know but are silent, they punish but say nothing about the reason for the punishment.  I find this state of things unsustainable, and it is my intention to confront it with the severity that it demands.

The sentence ends this way, without the closing quotations marks.

But it is the figure of two percent reported by Scalfari that creates a great deal of perplexity.  And one must ask: a) if the Pope really said that; b) who gave him these figures? c) did Scalfari report this correctly? There are 410,000 priests in the world.  Two percent of these comes to eight thousand.  This is data that contrasts with that which has been accepted heretofore.